Sunday, December 11, 2011

sriramayanam -balakanda -sarga (chapter) - 10th to 12th

Sree MadValmiki Ramayanam

(translation and Commentary by Scholar,   Sreeman Brahmasree Desiraju Hanumantharao ji
and  Sreeman Brahmasree K M K Murthy ji )

Sree Valmiki Ramayana
courtesy from
Sree Brahmasri Desiraju Hanumanta Rao ji
and  Sreeman Brahmasri K M K Murthy ji

Book I : Bala Kanda - The Youthful Majesties

Chapter [Sarga] 10


Sumantra, the minister continues his narration to his king Dasharatha, about Rishyashringa's arrival at Anga kingdom of King Romapaada and his marriage with Princess Santha, the daughter of Romapada.
suma.ntraH codito raaj~naa provaaca idam vacaH tadaa |
yathaa R^iSyashR^i~NgaH tu aaniito yena upaayena ma.ntribhiH
tanme nigaditam sarvam shR^iNu me ma.ntribhiH saha || 1-10-1
Sumantra thus motivated by King Dasharatha, said these words to king "Oh! King, how and with which idea Sage Rishyasringa is brought by the ministers of Romapada, all that will be spoken... that may please be listened from me along with ministers... [1-10-1]
romapaadam uvaaca idam saha amaatyaH purohitaH |
upaayo nirapaayo ayam asmaabhiH abhicintitaH || 1-10-2
"The ministers along with clergyman have spoken this way to King Romapaada, ‘this is a non-harmful pan well thought over by us... [1-10-2]
R^iSyashR^i~Ngo vanacaraH tapaH svaadhyaaya sa.myutaH |
anabhij~naH tu naariiNaam viSayaaNaam sukhasya ca || 1-10-3
"Rishyasringa is a forest-dweller absorbed in ascesis and self-study of Vedic scriptures, and he is not aware of women, or of worldly-matters or of even worldly-pleasures...[1-10-3]
indriyaarthaiH abhimataiH naracitta pramaathibhi |
puram aanaayayiSyaamaH kSipram ca adhyavasiiyataam ||1-10-4
"With much desired sense-pleasing objects that will be disquieting the minds of men, we wish bring him to the city... Let it be decided quickly... [1-10-4]
gaNikaaH tatra gacChantu ruupavatyaH svala.nkR^itaaH |
pralobhya vividha upaayaiH aaneSyanti iha satkR^itaaH || 1-10-5
"Beautiful and well decorated courtesans will go there to bring him hither by tempting with many a feint, and let the courtesans be given ample gifts... [1-10-5]
shrutvaa tathaa iti raajaa ca pratyuvaaca purohitam |
purohito ma.ntriNaH ca tathaa cakruH ca te tathaa || 1-10-6
"Hearing that the King replied the priest, "Let it be so..." and then the priests and ministers have carried out the plan that way... [1-10-6]
vaaramukhyaaH tu tat shrutvaa vanam pravivishuH mahat |
aashramasya aviduure asmin yatnam kurvanti da.rshane || 1-10-7
R^iSeH putrasya dhIrasya nityam aashrama vaasinaH |
"On hearing that order of the king those best courtesans have entered that great forest, and they camped not very far from that hermitage, making all the trials for showing themselves off to a glance of that sage. [1-10-7]
Any dictionary would give the meaning of courtesan as 'whore' or as 'court mistress'. But in Indian context, the courtesan is not to be taken in such a lowly way as just a prostitute or a whore. They belong to a caste/class of artists. Juxtaposed to the Four-Caste system there was a deva dasi Temple Dancers system, which is the artist's class. On their receiving enough education and skills in the performing arts and as per their capabilities, they will be nominated as Court Dancers or Temple Dancers and the like. Ancients recognized sixty-four arts chatuSaSTi kalaa , which include right from music, dance, and drama, sculpture, painting etc., up to the art of thievery. Kings in their political or sovereign pursuits variedly used these Deva Daasis, the courtesans.
pituH sa nitya sa.ntuSTo na aticakraama ca aashramaat || 1-10-8
na tena janma prabhR^iti dR^iSTa puurvam tapasvinaa |
strii vaa pumaan vaa yaccha anyat sattvam nagara raaSTrajam || 1-10-9
"Always satisfied is sage Rishyasringa to be in hermitage, thus he never stirred out of that hermitage, and thus he has not seen any female, or a male, or even any others objects of pleasure, either of city or of countryside from the time of birth onwards... [1-10-8b, 9]
Rishyasringa is thus not aware of gender differentiation or exposed to any other object of pleasure, and thus his father conditioned him to achieve some supreme ritual ideal.
tataH kadaacit tam desham aajagaama yadR^icChayaa |
vibhaaNDaka sutaH tatra taaH ca apashyat varaa.nganaaH || 1-10-10
10. tataH kadaachit= then, at one time; vibhaaNDaka sutaH= Vibhandaka's son Rishyasringa; yard^icChaya tam desham ajagaama = casually, at that, place, came; tatra taaH vara anganaaH apasyat= there, them, comely, females, has seen.
"Then at one time Rishyasringa casually arrived at that place, and hasseen those comely females. [1-10-10]
taaH citra veSaaH pramadaa gaaya.ntyo madhura svaram |
R^iSi putram upaagamya sarvaa vacanam abruvan || 1-10-11

"They the lustful women are amazingly attired and singing melodious tunes, all of them neared the sage's son and spoke these words... [1-10-11]
kaH tvam kim vartase brahman j~naatum icChaamahe vayam |
ekaH tvam vijane duure vane carasi sha.msa naH || 1-10-12
"Who you are? Why you move lonely in these deep and desolate forests, why you conduct yourself like this? Oh! Brahman, we are interested to know... please tell us..." [1-10-12]
adR^iSTa ruupaaH taaH tena kaamya ruupaa vane striyaH |
haardaat tasya matiH jaataa akhyaatum pitaram svakam || 1-10-13
"Those women are in most desirable form and hitherto he has not seen such forms in that forest, hence a kind of friendship spouted, with which he is inclined to detail about his father... [1-10-13]
pitaa vibhaaNDako asmaakam tasya aham suta aurasaH |
R^iSyashR^i~Nga iti khyaatam naama karma ca me bhuvi || 1-10-14
"My father is Sage Vibhandaka and I am his true descent son. I am known as Rishyasringa, by my name and by an event on my birth, and thus renowned on earth..."
The birth-event associated with his name is that he is born with a horn on the crown of his head. Thus he is named as Rishyasringa, i.e., R^iSi= the Sage; sR^i~Nga= horn; a Sage with a horn, and this here he recalls his birth time event.
iha aashrama pado.asmaakam samiipe shubha darshanaaH |
kariSye vo.atra puujaam vai sarveSaam vidhi puurvakam || 1-10-15
"Our hermitage is here only, oh, august ones, I wish to perform scripturally worship to you all verily there...” thus said the sage to the courtesans. [1-10-15]
R^iSi putra vacaH shrutvaa sarvaasaam matiraasa vai |
tat aashrama padam draSTum jagmuH sarvaaH tato a.nganaH || 1-10-16
"On hearing the words of sage's son, all those courtesans are verily inclined to see the threshold of that hermitage, then all the women went to hermitage. [1-10-16]
gataanaam tu tataH puujaam R^iSi putraH cakaara ha |
idam arghyam idam paadyam idam muulam phalam ca naH || 1-10-17
"On going there, then the Sage's son performed worship saying "Here is our hand-wash, here is our feet-wash, here are our tuber fruits, here are the juicy fruits of ours... " [1-10-17]
This portrays the exclusion of the sage's son from the rest of the world by his father. He worshipped the courtesans, as he would worship some super-natural deities by saying the above words, which will usually be used in ritual worship of Hindu deities. He being a fruitarian has offered the courtesans the tuber fruits like sweet potatoes etc., which are ridiculous to urbanites, that too to the pleasure-taking courtesans.
pratigR^ihya tu taam puujaam sarvaa eva samutsukaaH |
R^iSer bhiitaaH ca shiighram tu gamanaaya matim dadhuH || 1-10-18
"All of them have received that kind of worship much enthusiastically, but dread at the arrival of the sage Vibhandaka, they quickly made-up their mind to make away from there. [1-10-18]
asmaakam api mukhyaani phalaani imaani he dvija |
gR^ihaaNa vipra bhadram te bhakSayasva ca maa aciram || 1-10-19
" 'Take these important fruits of ours, oh, Brahman, you be safe, oh, holy one... eat them before long....' Said courtesans to Rishyasringa.] [1-10-19]
tataH taaH tam samaali.ngya sarvaa harSa samanvitaaH |
modakaan pradaduH tasmai bhakSyaam ca vividhaan shubhaan || 1-10-20
"Then all of the courtesans have embraced him and all of them with a kind of mirthfulness in the offing, presented sweet-balls and other varieties of best sweetmeats to him. [1-10-20]
taani ca aasvaadya tejasvii phalaani iti sma manyate |
anaasvaadita puurvaaNi vane nitya nivaasinaam || 1-10-21
"Having relished the sweets, that resplendent sage supposed them to be fruits only, for he did not taste sweets earlier, as he is always forest-bound. [1-10-21]
aapR^icChya ca tadaa vipram vrata caryaam nivedya ca |
gacChanti sma apadeshaat taa bhiitaaH tasya pituH striyaH || 1-10-22
"Taking leave of the Sage Rishyasringa on pretence that they also have to perform devotional duties, they the courtesans departed from there on the pretext of their daily worship, while they actually feared for the arrival of Rishyasringa's father who may hurl curses on his arrival...] [1-10-22]
gataasu taasu sarvaasu kaashyapasya aatmajo dvijaH |
asvastha hR^idayaH ca aasiit duHkhaat cha parivartate || 1-10-23
"After the departure of all them the courtesans, that Brahman Rishyasringa, the grandson of Sage Kaashyapa, is disturbed at heart and even behaved sadly... [1-10-23]
tato.apare dyuH tam desham aajagaama sa viiryavaan |
vibhaaNDaka sutaH shriimaan manasaa vichintayan muhuH || 1-10-24
manoj~naa yatra taa dR^iSTaa vaaramukhyaaH svala.mkR^itaaH |
"Then on the next day Rishyasringa, son of Vibhandaka and the prosperous sage with ascetic power has arrived at that place where he saw well-decorated and delightful courtesans recollecting in mind repetitively about them alone. [1-10-24, 25a]
dR^iSTvaa eva ca tato vipram aayaantam hR^iSTa maanasaaH || 1-10-25
upasR^itya tataH sarvaaH taaH tam uucur idam vacaH |

" Then on seeing the arrival of that Brahman, the courtesans felt happy at heart, and all of those courtesans on surrounding him said, "oh, gentle one, welcome to the threshold of our hermitage... [1-10-25b, 26]
chitraaNi atra bahuuni syuH muulaani ca phalani ca |
tatra api eSa visheSeNa vidhiH hi bhavitaa dhruvam || 1-10-27
"There are excellent tuber fruits and fruits and there will be a very distinctive hospitality... definitely indeed...” So said the courtesans.[1-10-27]
shrutvaa tu vacanam taasaam sarvaasaam hR^idayam gamam |
gamanaaya matim cakre tam ca ninyuH tathaa striyaH || 1-10-28
"On hearing the heart-pleasing words of all those courtesans, Rishyasringa made up his mind to go over there, and then those women took him away [to their place in Anga Kingdom.] [1-10-28]
tatra ca aaniiyamaane tu vipre tasmin mahaatmani |
vavarSa sahasaa devo jagat prahlaadayan tadaa || 1-10-29
"While that great soul ad Brahman Rishyasringa while being brought into Anga Kingdom, then the Rain-god quickly showered rain in Anga kingdom to the delight of the world. [1-10-29]
varSeNa eva aagatam vipram taapasam sa naraadhipaH |
prati udgamya munim prahvaH shirasaa ca mahiim gataH || 1-10-30
arghyam ca pradadau tasmai nyaayataH susamaahitaH |
vavre prasaadam vipreindraat maa vipram manyuH aavishet || 1-10-31
"Towards that Brahman Rishyasring who is coming along with rains into his own kingdom Anga Kingdom, the king Romapada has gone towards that sage and bowed his head down, and paid respects touching the ground, and offered water customarily with dedication and the king besought beneficence of the best one, Rishyasringa to save from the fury of his father Sage Vibhandaka, even after knowing the king's pursuit in bringing Rishyasringa to this country... [1-10-30, 31]
The salutation in prostration on the ground is usually performed before Gods or Deities, in reverence. It is called saaSTaanga praNaamam = sa aSTa anga praNaamam , i.e., saluting with eight body parts touching the ground, indicating his absolute surrender to the worshipped.
antaHpuram praveshya asmai kanyaam dattvaa yathaavidhi |
shaa.ntaam shaantena manasaa raajaa harSam avaapa saH || 1-10-32
"On entering the palace princess Shanta is given to Rishyasringa in customary marriage, and then that King Romapada obtained rejoice with a peaceful mind. [1-10-32]
evam sa nyavasat tatra sarva kaamaiH supuujitaH |
R^iSyashR^~Ngo mahaatejaa shantaayaa saha bhaaryayaa || 1-10-33
" Thus that great fulgent Rishyasringa lived in Anga kingdom along with his wife Shanta, and with all his desires fulfilled and also well worshipped" [Thus Sumantra said the legend of Rishyasringa to King Dasharatha.] [1-10-33]

iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe adi kaavye baala kaaNDe dashamaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 10th chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana,the First Epic poem of India.

Book I : Bala Kanda - The Youthful Majesties

Chapter [Sarga] 11

On the advice of his minister Sumantra, Dasharatha proceeds to Anga kingdom to fetch Sage Rishyasringa and his wife Shanta to his capital Ayodhya.

bhuuya eva hi raajendra shR^iNu me vacanam hitam |
yathaa sa devapravaraH kathayaamaasa buddhimaan || 1-11-1
Minister Sumantra continued, "oh, the great king, I will further narrate all that has been said by Sanat Kumara, the best one among all deities, kindly listen to these favourable words." [1-11-1.]
Sage Sanat Kumara belongs to the bygone era of Ikshvaku dynasty. Please refer to the account regarding the era-system if ancient India at endnote.
ikSvaakuuNaam kule jaato bhaviSyati sudhaarmikaH |
naamnaa dasharatho raajaa shriimaan satya pratishravaH || 1-11-2
"A king named Dasharatha will be born into Ikshwaku dynasty who will be very virtuous, resplendent and truthful one to his vow." [Said Sanat Kumara, the Sage.] [1-11-2]
a~Nga raajena sakhyam ca tasya raaj~no bhaviSyati |
kanyaa ca asya mahaabhaagaa shaa.ntaa naama bhaviSyati || 1-11-3
"King Dasharatha will befriend the king of Anga and the king of Anga will beget a fortunate girl named Shanta. [1-11-3]
Shanta is said to be the daughter of Dasharatha and given to Romapada in adoption, and Rishyasringa marries her alone. This is what Sumantra says to Dasharatha at 1-9-19.
putrastuH a~Ngasya raaj~naH tu romapaada iti shrutaH |
tam sa raajaa dasharatho gamiSyati mahaayashaaH || 1-11-4
The son of the king of Anga, the earlier king of Anga kingdom, will be known as Romapada, or also know as Chitraratha, and the highly renowned king Dasharatha approaches Romapada. [1-11-4]
anapatyo.asmi dharmaatman shaa.ntaa bhartaa mama kratum |
aahareta tvayaa aaj~naptaH sa.ntaanaartham kulasya ca || 1-11-5
Then king Dasharatha says to king of Anga "oh, righteous one, I am childless and hence I intend to perform a Vedic ritual. Let the husband of your daughter Shanta, Sage Rishyasringa, preside over that Vedic ritual at you behest, for the sake of progeny in my dynasty. [1-11-5]
shrutvaa raaj~no.atha tat vaakyam manasaa sa vici.ntya ca |
pradaasyate putravantam shaa.ntaa bhartaaram aatmavaan || 1-11-6
"On hearing those words of king Dasharatha that benevolent soul Romapada, the king of Anga, considers heartily and agrees to send the one who endows progeny by rituals, namely Sage Rishyasringa his son-in-law. [1-11-6]
The words pradaasyate putravantam are read in some translations as 'Rishyasringa who already has a son...' while others read it as 'a sage who endows progeny by putra kameSti ritual...' But in Maha Bharata father Vibhandaka says to Rishyasringa to comeback after begetting a son, which Rishyasringa did not concede. So taking this some say Rishyasringa has a son. But it is generally accepted that putravantam as aahitaagni, Vedic ritualist of eminence, according to: j˜ta putra× k®þõa keþo agnŸn adhŸta... according to shruti scripture.
pratigR^ihyam ca tam vipram sa raajaa vigata jvaraH |
aahariSyati tam yaj~nam prahR^iSTena a.ntaraatmanaa || 1-11-7
"On receiving that Brahman, Sage Rishyasringa, at the behest of his father-in-law, that king Dasharatha gets rid of his febrile condition and will accomplish that Vedic ritual, feeling very felicitous in the depths of his heart. [1-11-7]
tam ca raajaa dasharatho yashas kaamaH kR^itaa.nliH |
R^iSyashR^i~Ngam dvija shreSTham varayiSyati dharmavit || 1-11-8
yaj~naartham prasavaartham ca svargaartham ca nareshvaraH |
labhate ca sa tam kaamam dvija mukhyaat vishaa.mpatiH || 1-11-9
"That king, the desirer of glory, the knower of virtue and the lord of people, namely Dasharatha will be requesting that best Brahman Rishyasringa with his palms adjoined in supplication for the conduct of ritual, for progeny and even for his heavenly abodes, and that king of all the quarters of earth will accomplish those desires from that eminent Brahman Rishyasringa. [1-11-8,9]
Heavenly abodes are dependent on begetting sons: aputrasya gatir n˜sti svargo naivaca naivaca There is no way out [in other worlds] for those without sons... shruti scripture. Hence the request of Dasharatha is that way.
putraaH ca asya bhaviSyanti catvaaro amita vikramaaH |
va.msha pratiSThaanakaraaH sarva buuteSu vishrutaaH || 1-11-10
"There will be four sons to king Dasharatha that abound with valour, enrich dynasty's reputation and they will be renowned among all beings." Thus said Sage Sanat Kumara to other sages. [1-11-10]
'Sons and Paradise are intimately connected in Indian belief. A man desires above every thing to have a son to perpetuate his race, and to assist with sacrifices and funeral rites to make him worthy to obtain a lofty seat in heaven or to preserve that which he has already obtained.' Gorresio via Ralph T. H. Griffith [1870-1874].
evam sa deva pravaraH puurvam kathitavaan kathaam |
sanatkumaaro bhagavaan puraa devayuge prabhuH || 1-11-11
"This way he that ancient and godly Sage Sanatkumaara, who is also Brahma's brain-child like Narada, said this legend in earlier Divine Era, called krita yuga..." thus Sumantra continued his narration to Dasharatha. [1-11-11]
Comment: Please refer endnote for yuga / era classification.
sa tvam puruSa shaarduula samaanaya susatkR^itam |
svayam eva mahaaraaja gatvaa sa bala vaahanaH || 1-11-12
" Oh, great king the manly-tiger, he that Sage Rishyasringa be led here on your proceeding in person with staff and transport and on adoring him well personally." Thus Sumantra concluded his narration. [1-11-12]
suma.ntrasya vachaH shrutvaa hR^iSTo dasharatho.abhavat |
anumaanya vasiSTham ca suutavaakyam nishaamya ca || 1-11-13
sa antaHpuraH saha amaatyaH prayayau yatra sa dvijaH |
On hearing the word of advise from charioteer, Dasharatha became gladsome and made Sumantra to reiterate to that sage also, for his approval, then Dasharatha travelled to the place where that Brahman Rishyasringa is, along with the inmates of palace-chambers and ministers too. [1-11-13, 14a]
While the chief priest Vashishta is officiator of all rituals no king can invite another priest to perform something without the consent of the officiating priest. Hence the consent of Vasishta is obtained, after asking Sumantra to reiterate what all was said, to sage Vashishta also. anena pr˜cŸna ®tvik abhyanujñanena na eva anya ˜neya× -- dharm˜k¨tam
vanaani saritaH ca eva vyatikramya shanaiH shanaiH || 1-11-14
abhicakraama tam desham yatra vai munipu.ngavaH |

On crossing over the rivers and forests slowly and steadily Dasharatha entered that kingdom where that eminent Brahman is there. [1-11-14b, 15a]
aasaadya tam dvija shreSTham romapaada samiipagam || 1-11-15
R^iSiputram dadarsha atho diipyamaanam iva analam |
Then Dasharatha saw that best Brahman who he is nearby king Romapada, andwho is resplendent like ritual fire. [1-11-15b, 16a]
tato raajaa yathaa yogyam puujaam cakre visheSataH || 1-11-16
sakhitvaat tasya vai raaj~naH prahR^iSTena a.ntaraatmanaa |
Then king Romapada gladdened at heart of hearts paid excellent respects to king Dasharatha procedurally and in view of their friendship.[1-11-16b, 17a]
romapaadena ca aakhyaatam R^iSiputraaya dhiimate || 1-11-17
sakhyam sa.mbandhakam caiva tadaa tam pratyapuujayat |
Then Romapada informed the wise sage Rishyasringa about the friendship and relation with Dasharatha, and then that sage worshipped king Dasharatha in his return. [1-11-17b, 19a]
evam susatkR^itaH tena sahoSitvaa nararSabhaH || 1-11-18
saptaaSTa divasaan raajaa raajaanam idam abraviit |
Thus well received by king Romapada, king Dasharatha spent seven to eight days with him, and then spoke this to king Romapada. [1-11-18b, 19a]
shaa.ntaa tava sutaa raajan saha bhartraa vishaam pate || 1-11-19
madiiyam nagaram yaatu kaaryam hi mahadudyatam |
"Oh, lord of subjects, your daughter Princess Shanta may go over my city Ayodhya along with her husband Rishyasringa, as oh, king, I am contemplating to perform a great Vedic ritual, indeed." So said Dasharatha to Romapada. [1-11-19b, 20a]
tathaa iti raajaa sa.mshrutya gamanam tasya dhiimataH || 1-11-20
uvaaca vacanam vipram gacCha tvam saha bhaaryayaa |
"So it shall be" said king Romapada agreeing to their travel with king Dasharatha, and addressed these words to that Brahman sage and his son-in-law, Sage Rishyasringa "You may proceed along with your wife." [1-11-20b, 21a]
Here Ralph T. H. Griffith's translation [1870-1874] has that Shanta is the daughter of Dasharatha: 'This king,' he said, 'from days of old / A well beloved friend I hold. / To me this pearl of dames he gave / From childless woe mine age to save, / The daughter whom he loved so much, / Moved by compassion's gentle touch. / In him thy S'antá's father see: / As I am even so is he...
R^iSiputraH pratishrutya tathaa iti aahaH nR^ipam tadaa || 1-11-21
sa nR^ipeNa abhyanuj~naataH prayayau saha bhaaryayaa |
Then Rishyasringa agreed and replied to the king Romapada "So it will be done" and then having been permitted by the king he set forth along with his wife. [1-11-21b, 22a]
taava anyonya a.njalim kR^itvaa snehaat sa.mshliSya ca urasaa || 1-11-22
nana.ndatuH dasharatho romapaadaH ca viiryavaan |
Those valiant kings greeted each other with thanksgiving palm-fold, and in friendship they embraced each other and gladdened. [1-11-22b, 23a]
tataH suhR^idam aapR^icChya prasthito raghunandanaH || 1-11-23
paureSu preSayaamaasa duutaan vai shiighra gaaminaH |
Then king Dasharatha who set forth to Ayodhya bade farewell to his friend king Romapada, and he firstly sent quick-footed messengers to Ayodhya to inform his citizens about his arrival along with Sage Rishyasringa. [1-11-23b, 24a]
kriyataam nagaram sarvam kSipram eva svala.nkR^itam || 1-11-24
dhuupitam sikta sammR^iSTam pataakaabhiH ala.nkR^itam |
"Let the entire city of Ayodhya be well decorated very quickly, let her streets be sprinkled with water and then swept, let the flags of welcome be hoisted.." Thus, king Dasharatha ordered messengers that are sent beforehand. [1-11-24b, 25a]
tataH prahR^iSTaaH pauraaH te shrutvaa raajaanam aagatam || 1-11-25
tathaa cakruH cha tat sarvam raaj~naa yat preSitam tadaa |

Then on hearing the arrival of their king all the citizens felt very happy and readily performed all those works exactly as ordered by their king. [1-11-25b, 26a]
tataH svala.mkR^itam raajaa nagaram pravivesha ha || 1-11-26
sha~Nkha dundubhi nihraa.rdaiH puraskR^itvaa dvijarSabham |
Then king Dasharatha keeping Rishyasringa before him entered the well-decorated city Ayodhya amidst the full sounding of conch shells and drumbeats. [1-11-26b, 27a]
tataH pramuditaaH sarve dR^iSTvaa tam naagaraa dvijam || 1-11-27
praveshyamaanam satkR^itya narendreNa indra karmaNaa |
yathaa divi surendreNa sahasraaksheNa kaashyapam || 1-11-28
Then all the citizens are very happy on seeing that Brahman, Sage Rishyasringa, who is well honoured and being entered into the city by their king Dasharatha, as has been done once by Indra when he entered sage Kashyapa's son Vamana, the dwarfish boy and the incarnation of Vishnu, into heavens, and thus those citizens felt that their human lord Dasharatha vies with divine lord Indra. [1-11-27b, 28]
The simile of Indra to king Dasharatha is in two ways. Dasharatha ruled kingdom like Indra who rules Heavens. The word Indra karmaNa also refers to the deeds of Dasharatha, in helping the gods' forces combating the demonic forces. Thus the deeds performed by Dasharatha are like those of Indra's. Here Dasharatha is bringing Sage Rishyasringa to Ayodhya. Earlier Indra led Vamana, the dwarf-boy to heavens. Vamana is the incarnation of Vishnu in early ages and after Vamana suppressed Bali, the Emperor to netherworlds, Indra took Vamana to heavens. Thus Dasharatha is like Indra on earth, both by his virtue and deed. Incidentally, Vamana i.e., Vishnu, is the son-incarnate to Sage Kaashyapa, while sage Rishyasringa is the grandson of the same Kaashyapa. Thus Sage Kaashyapa is instrumental to these two incarnations. Through the divine grace of Sage Rishyasringa, the same Vishnu is going to take birth as Rama, while Sage Kashyapa is a grandparent of Rama in this era, and while he alone was Vishnu's father when Vishnu incarnated as Dwarf boy Vamana.
antaHpuram praveshya enam puujaam kR^itvaa ca shaastrataH |
kR^itakR^ityam tadaa aatmaanam mene tasya upavaahanaat || 1-11-29
Dasharatha entered the sage into the palace chambers and worshipped him there as ordained in the scriptures, and in bringing the Sage here into his country, king Dasharatha believed that his desired is fulfilled. [1-11-28]
antaHpuraaNi sarvaaNi shaa.ntaam dR^iSTvaa tathaa aagataam |
saha bhartraa vishaalaakSiim priityaa aana.ndam upaagaman || 1-11-30
On seeing her, the broad-eyed Shanta, who came there along with her husband all the ladies of palace derived happiness for the homecoming of their own daughter, as it were. [1-11-29]
puujyamaanaa tu taabhiH saa raaj~naa cha eva visheSataH |
uvaasa tatra sukhitaa kancit kaalam saha dvijaa || 1-11-31
Shanta thus being admired by all of them, and in an exceptional manner by Dasharatha, comfortably resided there along with her husband, the Vedic scholar Rishyasringa. [1-11-30]
The Riwik is not just a reciter of Veda-s but more a director or conductor of whole orchestration of the Vedic ritual, which involves lots of rules, in reciting hymns, in performing deeds and all in their exactness. The whole lots of works that need be performed have the order of precedence like prime, auxiliary or adjunctive in their ordinance. A Ritwik is the elated scholar who keeps track of these activities while other scholars recite hymns as directed by these Ritwik-s. Hence, Ritwik-hood is the highest.
The Dour Era system of Hindus
The Four Era system, chaturyuga has the following components: satya yuga or krita yuga 17, 28, 000 years of duration. This is the era of Rama's ancestors of Ikshvaku dynasty, or the Solar dynasty. treta yuga 12, 96, 000 years.[The era is of Rama's near ancestors, again of Solar dynasty 3. dwapara yuga 8, 64, 000 years. This is the period of Epic Maha Bharata with an admixture of Solar and Lunar dynasties ruling. kali yuga 4, 32, 000 years. The present period obtaining from the ruination of Maha Bharata civilisation.
One cycle of the above four eras is called one mahaa yuga and seventy-one [71] of such of the Fourfold Eras mahaa yugaa-s will become one manvantara, Manu-Epoch, the time scale attributed to one Manu, the Supreme Ruler of Mankind. There are total fourteen such Manu-epochs and six of them over in the present manvantara , the time-scale.
The completed Manu cycles are 1.] svayambhu manu , 2.] svaarochiSa manu , 3.] auuttami manu , 4.] taamasa manu , 5.] raivata manu , 6.] chaaksha manu . Presently we are in the Seventh cycle called vaivasvata mnavantara , and there are seven more manvantara -s to come, starting with 8.] surya saavarni Manu, 9.] dharma saavani, 10.] daksha savarni, 11.] rudra saavarni, 12.] brahma saavrani, 13.] rouchya manu , 14.] bhoutya manu.
Such fourteen Manu time cycles will be said to be a Day of Brahma, the Absolute. Ramayana is said to have happened in kR^ita yuga, the second Manu time cycle. The earlier one is satya yuga , in which the ancestors of Rama, descendants of Raghu dynasty, like Saagara, Harishchandra et al, were the rulers, which is called Ikshvaku dynasty.

iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe ekaadashaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 11th chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Sree MadValmiki Ramayanam

Sree Valmiki Ramayana
aapadaam apahartaaram daataaram sarvasaMpadaam.h .
lokaabhiraamam shriiraamam bhuuyo bhuuyo namaamyaham.h ..
" I bow again and again to Sree Rama who removes (all) obstacles and grants all wealth and pleases all. "

Book I : Bala Kanda - Book Of Youthful Majesties

Chapter [Sarga] 12


King Dasharatha requests the Sages to conduct the Vedic ritual for which the sages indent paraphernalia, which the ministers are ordered to supply forthwith. This chapter is almost a replication of chapter 8, excepting the inclusion of references to Sage Rishyasringa who by now is available in Ayodhya.
tataH kaale bahu tithe kasmin cit sumanohare |
vasante samanupraapte raaj~no yaSTum mano.abhavat ||1-12-1
After a lapse some time when spring season has come the king Dasharatha desired to perform the Vedic ritual. [1-12-1]
Please refer to endnote for Indian seasons and months for vasanta / spring season.

tataH praNamya shirasaa tam vipram deva varNinam |
yaj~naaya varayaamaasa sa.ntaana artham kulasya ca || 1-12-2
tatha iti ca sa raajaanam uvaaca vasudha adhipam |
Then bowing his head before that Brahmana sage Rishyasringa whose is glow is like that of a deity, King Dasharatha verily beseeched that sage to conduct Vedic ritual on his behalf as he wished to beget progeny to maintaining his family line. [1-12-2]

sa.mbhaaraaH sa.mbhriyantaam te turagashca vimucyataam || 1-12-3
saravyaaH cha uttare tiire yaj~na bhuumiH vidhiiyataam |
Sage Rishyasringa who by now is well-honoured by the king said to the king, "So it shall be, let the paraphernalia for ritual be garnered and let your ritual horse be released as a prerogative." [1-12-3]

tato abraviit nR^ipaH vaakyam braahmaNaan veda paaragaan || 1-12-4
suma.mtra aavaahaya kshSipram R^itvijo brahma vaadinaH |
suyaj~nam vaamadevam ca jaabaalim atha kaashyapam || 1-12-5
purohitam vasiSTham ca ye ca anye dvija sattamaaH |
Then King Dasharatha said to his best minister Sumantra, "Let the Vedic scholars and ritual conductors like Sages Suyajna, Vaamadeva, Jaabaali, and Kaashyapa, along with the family priest Vashishta, as well as other Vedic Brahmans that are there, they all be invited swiftly..." [1-12-4, 5]

tataH suma.ntraH tvaritam gatvaa tvarita vikramaH || 1-12-6
samaanayat sa taan sarvaan samastaan veda paaragaan |
taan pUjayitvaa dharmaatmaa raajaa dasharathaH tadaa || 1-12-7
dharma artha sahitam yuktam shlakshNam vachanam abravIt |
Then Sumantra being a quickest person went quickly and fetched all those Vedic scholars and clergymen. Then the virtuous king Dasharatha having offered due worships to all the sages and saints brought in by Sumantra, uttered these words which are with virtue and meaning, in an impressible manner. [1-12-6, 7]

mama taatapya maanasya putraartham naasti vai sukham || 1-12-8
putraartham hayamedhena yakshayaami iti matirmama |
tat aham yaSTum icChaami hayamedhena karmaNaa || 1-12-9
R^iSiputra prabhaaveNa kaamaan praapsyaami ca api aham |
"My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons... hence I am thinking of performing the Vedic Horse Ritual for progeny... I wish to perform the ritual as enshrined in the scriptures and by strict observances... I wish to get my desires fulfilled through the divine influence of the Sage's son, Rishyasringa... [1-12-8, 9]

tataH saadhu iti tad vaakyam braahmaNaaH pratyapUjayan || 1-12-10
vasishhTha pramukhaaH sarve paarthivasya mukhaat chyutam |
R^iSyashR^i~Nga purogaaH ca prati uucuH nR^ipatim tadaa || 1-12-11
Then "Splendid, splendid is this idea," said the Brahmana scholars blessing the king. Then Sage Vashishta along with all other important personalities have applauded the idea that has come out of the king's voice, and all those Vedic scholars and clergymen keeping Rishyasringa at helm of affairs said this to the king, in appreciation of that idea. [1-12-10, 11]

sa.mbhaaraaH sa.mbhriyamtaam te turagaH ca vimucyataam |
saravyaaH cha uttare tiire yaj~na bhuumiH vidhiiyataam || 1-12-12
sarvathaa praapyase putraam chaturo amita vikramaan |
yasya te dharmikii buddhiH iyam putraartham aagataa || 1-12-13
"Because a virtuous thinking of begetting sons through Vedic ritual has come to you, you will by all means get four sons with boundless valour... let ritual paraphernalia be garnered and let your ritual-horse be released..." The Vedic seers thus blessed Dasharatha. [1-12-12, 13]

tataH priito.abhavat raajaa shrutvaa tu dvija bhaaSitam |
amaatyaan abraviit raajaa harshheNa idam shubha aksharam || 1-12-14
Then the king is gladdened to hear the blessing advises of the Vedic scholars, and he spoke to the other ministers of his court, with happiness derived from those good words. [1-12-14]
gurUNaam vachanaat shiighram sa.mbhaaraaH sa.mbhriyantu me |
samartha adhishhTitaH cha ashvaH saH upaadhyaayo vimuchyataam || 1-12-15
sarayavyaaH cha uttare tiire yaj~na bhUmiH vidhIyataam |
shaa.mtayaH cha abhivarthantaam yathaa kalpam yathaa vidhi || 1-12-16
shakyaH kartum ayam yaj~naH sarveNa api mahiikshitaa |
na aparaatho bhavet kashhTo yadya asmin kratu sattame || 1-12-17
chhidram hi mR^igayanta ete vidvaanso brahma raakshasaaH |
vidhihiinasya yaj~nasya sadyaH kartaa vinashyati || 1-12-18
tad yathaa vidhi puurvam kratuH eSa samaapyate |
tathaa vidhaanam kriyataam samarthaaH karaNeSu iha || 1-12-19
The king said to his executives, "As advised by my Vedic teachers, let the paraphernalia for my ritual be procured... let the ritual-horse be released, guarded well by gallant men in its journey... and let religious teachers follow that horse as per tradition... let the ritual place be decided on the northern banks of Sarayu River... let the peace invocations be prevailing and prospering throughout as ordained in the scriptures and tradition... all the kings on this earth would have performed this Horse Ritual, if only they can perform this without a mistake... thus, this is a great and difficult ritual... the Brahma-demons will be hunting for the faults performed in the rituals whereat they can inteject themselves in to the proceedings of the ritual in order to ruin it... further, the performer of the ritual also gets ruined if there were be to be faults... that is why this ritual shall be conducted faultlessly till its conclusion, and with absolute adherence to the scriptures... since all of you assembled here are efficient ones in conducting such rituals without faults, I hope you all will organise carefully.... [1-12-15,16,17,18, 19]
tathaa iti cha tataH sarve ma.ntriNaH pratyapuujayan |
paarthiva indrasya tat vaakyam yathaa aaj~naptam akurvata || 1-12-20
In appreciation of his orders all the ministers replied the king saying "it will be done accordingly..." and indeed they have faultlessly carried out works as ordered. [1-12-20]
tato dvijaaH te dharmaj~nam astuvan paarthivarSabham |
anuj~naataaH tataH sarve punaH jagmuH yathaa aagatam || 1-12-21
Then all the Brahmans applauded the virtuous king and who is like a Sacred Bull among the kings for his virtuous endeavour of undertaking the Vedic ritual, and with his permission all of them returned from there as they have come. [1-12-21]
gateSu teSu vipreSu ma.ntriNaH taan naraadhipaH |
visarjayitvaa svam veshma pravivesha mahaamatiH ||1-12-22
On the departure of the prominent Brahmans, King Dasharatha sent off those ministers who are still available there for further orders from the king, and then he the great resplendent king has entered his own palace. [1-12-22]
Indian seasons
The Indian yearly time-cycle is two-kind, one on northern solstice and the other southern solstice. And seasons are twelve and every two months is a season, and they are calculated by almanacs basing on the stars position every year. They roughly compare with the following Gregorian months as below:
Hindu months
Gregorian months
margashiirSa to pouSa
December to February
maagha to phaalguna
February to April
chaitra to vaishaakha
April to June
jyeSTha to aashaaDha
June to August
shraavaNa to bhaadrapada
August to October
aashviiiyuja to kaartiika
October to December

iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe dvaadashaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 12th chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

( I bow to the lotus feet of
Sree Brahmasri Desiraju Hanumanta Rao ji
and  Sreeman Brahmasri K M K Murthy ji for the collection )

No comments:

Post a Comment